Category: Historical

zoroastrian-avesta

Cultural ticket

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Social classes in Ancient Persia.

Persian society was modeled on a quadripartite scheme based on the Avesta, the sacred scriptures of the Zoroastrians.

Social classes in Ancient Persia.
Persian society was modeled on a quadripartite scheme based on the Avesta, the sacred scriptures of the Zoroastrians.
The categories were:  priests, warriors, farmers and artisans.
The first three were each under the protection of one of the Empire’s three great sacred fires.
Azar-Faranbagh for priests, Azar-Gushnasp for the King of Kings and warriors and Azar-barzin-Mihr for farmers.
Society in the Sassanid era was hierarchical. The word caste has been applied to designate its classes. Membership in a category was hereditary and the barriers to a higher level were, in principle, impenetrable.
📍Irandelle, the travel ticket

The cosmogonic myth of the Zoroastrians

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The material world as an entity composed of seven creations of the God Ahura Mazda, each under the protection of a “beneficent immortal” Amahraspands, a species of archangel.

🥚a stone sky designed like an eggshell surrounding the rest; then 💦water filling the bottom of the shell.

The material world as an entity composed of seven creations of the God Ahura Mazda, each under the protection of a “beneficent immortal” Amahraspands, a species of archangel.
🥚a stone sky designed like an eggshell surrounding the rest; then water filling the bottom of the shell.
🌎the earth floating on primitive waters like a flat disc (the mountain anchoring the earth) in the center of the earth, a single plant, 🐂a unique bull and the first man “Gayomard”, immortal life protected by Ahura Mazda itself, well, fire, visible in the sun and other celestial bodies.
everything is going well until Ahreman, the evil Spirit then attacks the creations of hormezd …

Babylon

The trading posts of the empires in antiquity

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“The Babylonians, now Iraqis, bought pigments, iron, copper, tin and wine from Asia Minor, today’s Turkey.

They also bought alum from Egypt and Syria to color wool and make glass.

“The Babylonians, now Iraqis, bought pigments, iron, copper, tin and wine from Asia Minor, today’s Turkey.
They also bought alum from Egypt and Syria to color wool and make glass.
“Egypt exported luxury goods, in gold, ivory and ebony.
📍Syria and Phenicia which corresponds to Lebanon, exported cedar wood and glass objects.
📍The Sogdians, now known as Uzbeques, and Bactria, part of present-day Afghanistan, traded in lapis lazuli, and Choresmia, located in northeastern Iran, sold turquoise.
Gold, ivory and aromatic oils came from India and olive oil, wine and ceramics from Greece.

bitcoin

Persia and Bitcoin

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The famous cryptocurrency is on the rise in Iran.

At a time when the giants of international finance are speaking out to warn of the risks and volatility of cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin is being validated as collateral in Iranian marriage contracts in place of bullion and cash.

The famous cryptocurrency is on the rise in Iran. At a time when the giants of international finance are speaking out to warn of the risks and volatility of cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin is being validated as collateral in Iranian marriage contracts in place of bullion and cash. This shows how well it is integrated into the country’s financial system.

According to Bitooda, a digital currency research firm, Iran is the third country in the world for Bitcoin mining, after China and America.
Nearly 2 million of this currency, the most famous currency used in the digital currency market, has been mined and deposited in Iranians’ “wallets”, virtual wallets.

Iran, one of the most economically sanctioned countries in the world, has seized the opportunity of cryptocurrencies to circumvent the economic blockade. And Iranian youth, hit hard by unemployment, have found a possible source of income and daily occupation.

Since 2014, Bitcoin has gradually entered unofficial transactions, a choice for thousands of families
Iranian women wanting to send money to their children living abroad, or it is used for some kind of business transaction.

Mining farms have sprung up in the country, illegally imported mining devices are installed in old factories and disused garages. A further consequence of the sanctions crippling the Iranian economy.
Industry, the flagship of the economy for a while, replaced by modern factories fed by the virtual.

It was in these most remote places, in apartment rooms, or under the banisters that the first Bitcoins were generated.
Since 2015 these “farms” have been expanding more and more to barter cheap electricity in exchange for an encrypted code ready to be cashed with a single swipe of a finger.

A whole new market has emerged, from traffickers of “mining devices” to electrical technicians, to cable vendors and appliance repairers. A parallel network, an underground economy, having started autonomously and wildly, escaping government control.

The old dream of the treasure hunter has just come true and the “mining devices” are running at full speed to exploit their devices and decrypt the maximum number of valid blocks and thus pocket the jackpot.

Deep in the Iranian soul lies an intuition for scenting out opportunities and getting rich or fattening one’s heritage. They were able to take advantage of the depths of the oil wells. The Iranian people easily engage in risky businesses, such as tightrope walkers. The Iranian economy suffers from permanent inflation since the revolution, derived from international economic sanctions, and speculation is a second job for almost all Iranians, an example is: the frenzy of pyramid systems of all kinds that have pulverized the savings of many families in the 2010s.

Bitcoin is well established and present in the lives of Iranians at the most contested moment in its history. They ride this wave while waiting to see better days …

Omar Khayyam

Omar Khayyam

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May 18 is the day of commemoration of the illustrious Hakim Omar Khayyam.

He was a philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet in the 11th century.

May 18 is the day of commemoration of the illustrious Hakim Omar Khayyam.

He was a philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet in the 11th century.

He is considered one of the greatest mathematicians of the Middle Ages. Omar Khayyam is notably the instigator of the solar calendar, still used in Iran.

But his fame is mainly due to the writing of his quatrains, Rubaiyat, often cited in the West for their skepticism. They would conceal, according to Idries Shah, “mystical pearls”, making Khayyam a Sufi. He is one of the most popular and widely read Persian poets around the world.
This large audience is due to a first translation of his works into English by Edward Fitzgerald, in 1859.

A page of history

A page of history

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1909, Iran, the first Middle Eastern country to have a constitution since 1906, finds itself in chaos.

On the one hand, the king, supported by the Russians and taking advantage of the support of the Cossack brigade, abdicates in favor of the crown prince, an act forced by the constitutionalists.

A page of history

1909, Iran, the first Middle Eastern country to have a constitution since 1906, finds itself in chaos.

On the one hand, the king, supported by the Russians and taking advantage of the support of the Cossack brigade, abdicates in favor of the crown prince, an act forced by the constitutionalists.

On the other hand the Majles suffers from the lack of sovereignty and the budget necessary to carry out its reforms, ideological differences also disturb the good understanding between parliamentarians.

Taghizadeh, the leader of the Democratic Party, some of whose members have Russian citizenship, opposing the demands of clerics in the legislature, is convicted of “ideological corruption”. He is condemned to death and flees the country.

His opponent, Seyyed Behbahani, representative of the moderate party, is assassinated by a radical activist as he prepares to read Taghizade’s sentence in the Majles court.

One of the heroes of this revolution is a chief of the Bakhtiari tribe, Sardar Asaad, close to the British and having sided with the constitutionalists. He led his tribal army to the capital, and worked for its liberation. He was rewarded and honored by being appointed governor of Tehran.

A decision was finally taken by the government, until then inert, to try to improve the financial situation of the country: the recruitment of an American financial mission and Swedish officers to organize an armed force capable of counterbalancing the power of the country. Cossack brigade. The choice falls on politically neutral countries.

Morgan Shuster (1877-1960), an American, was appointed Treasurer General of Persia and arrived in May 1911 at the head of a delegation of five financial advisers. It will work to put an end to financial abuses, such as corruption, privileges and foreign interference. All the evils from which the very young democracy suffered, which failed to change mentalities and the balance of power despite this revolution, is what he lets us understand in his autobiography.

Shuster also highlights the cultural distance between American advisers convinced of the benefits of a modern and efficient administration, and the reality of a traditional society, very hierarchical, where the complex relations of allegiance and parenthood guaranteed to individuals what ‘no rational law could offer them.

Shuster’s main enemies were the Russian and British delegations. The Russians still strongly present in northern Iran and the British trying to weaken the skills of the treasurer general, with the aim of obtaining the government’s approval for a new loan of 1,250,000 pounds.
Faced with so much hostility and pressure from the Russian-British “alliance”, Shuster was prematurely dismissed.

The Russians commit a coup in Tabriz, and the hanging of certain constitutionalists causing declarations of solidarity in Europe in socialist circles.
They will also show extreme brutality in Mashad on March 30, 1912, bombarding Imam Reza’s shrine and machine-gunning the crowd to disperse it killing 500 people.
The European press, occupied by the Titanic wreck, will not talk about it.

The situation was less dire in the south, where the population resisted British occupation.
Six years after the first demonstrations, the constitutional revolution was sinking into chaos.

One of the reasons for the failure of the constitution was due to the religious movement which had refused to follow through on a democratic logic, bounded by the limits of traditional theological discourse.
The differences of opinion of the constitutionalists were also fatal.

Reformers should no longer rely on outside support. Foreign interference was increasingly visible and brutal. Notably that of the British, on whom the Iranian liberals had initially based the hope of support against absolutism. Henceforth, it was with Russian socialist ideas that they were going to be united …

ice-reservoir-kerman

Ice house

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Ice dump in Kerman is a conical structure made out of straw and clay which covers a big hemisphere reservoir dug in the ground.

It was a place for preserving the ice.

Ice house in Kerman is a conical structure made out of straw and clay which covers a big hemisphere reservoir dug in the ground. It was a place for preserving the ice. There are some big shallow ponds and high walls near the ice dump to make the ice on winter nights. Every night water was poured into the pond and at night it turned into ice. The ice was taken into the reservoir and a stash of straw was placed between the layers to isolate it. The reason that they made the structure like a cone is because of preventing the heat from entering the ice dump. After filling up the Ice dump, they keep it close until summer and after that, they brought the ice to the city to sell it; in the ceremonies, they use the ice for making the syrup and cold water for the guests, a real refreshing beverage.

isfahan-Pigeon-tower

Pigeon tower

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Pigeon tower was used as a safe house and shelter for the pigeons but this wasn’t the only function.

They were built around the farms to collect their droppings as fertilizer!

Pigeon tower was used as a safe house and shelter for the pigeons but this wasn’t the only function. They were built around the farms to collect their droppings as fertilizer! Every 6 month the farmers collected the dropping and used them in their farms or even they sold it. Today we know that these droppings are rich in Nitrogen, a critical element for cucurbits such as melons. No surprise that melons of Isfahan have had a reputation since 1000 years ago.
The structure includes a central cylinder which is surrounded by several smaller cylinders; all are made of brick and plaster. There are thousands of nests on the internal surface of the cylinders.
The only entrance to the tower was a set of holes on the top, just as big as a pigeon, to prevent the birds of prey from entering the tower. There is also a white stripe around the external surface of the tower which is slippery for snakes.
Pigeon towers are only found in Isfahan province and some of these organic fertilizer factories are reconstructed for the people and tourists to visit.

“Who is knocking at the door?”

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Knockers are not only decorative accessories hung on heavy wooden doors, they have a special cultural connotation.

Women inside houses had to wear the hijab in the presence of people outside the close family members knocking on the door.

Knockers are not only decorative accessories hung on heavy wooden doors, they have a special cultural connotation. Women inside houses had to wear the hijab in the presence of people outside the close family members knocking on the door. There are two hammers on each door leaf, each having a different shape and a different tone. The circular one has a lower sound, indicates that a woman is standing in front of the door. The heavier, larger handle has a higher sound and tells us it is a man visiting the household.

The-diamond-Daraye-Noor-sea-of-light-Treasury-of-National-Jewels

The Royal treasury of Iran

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The Royal treasury, probably an unparalleled collection in the world is currently housed in the basement of the Iran Melli Bank.

The accumulation of this treasure dates back to the Safavid era in the 17th century. After the conquest of India by Nader Shah, …

The Royal treasury of Iran
The Royal treasury, probably an unparalleled collection in the world is currently housed in the basement of the Iran Melli Bank. The accumulation of this treasure dates back to the Safavid era in the 17th century. After the conquest of India by Nader Shah, he brought back a great deal of precious stones including the two largest pink diamond in the world, sea of light and mount of light. The latter later possessed by british army and is now on the crown of the queen.
In the Qajar era, once again, Fath Ali shah took possession of it and the personal interest of the Qajar kings added quite a few new gems to it, which were partly bought and some counted among the diplomatic gifts.
In 1937 a law required that the treasury be transferred to the Melli (national) bank as the financial endowment of national currency.
The treasury has been prepared and opened to the public with very restricted visiting times.
Among the unique jewels, we can name
The crown of the Pahlavi Dynasty of 2080 grams, used by Reza and Mohammadreza Shah in their coronation ceremony. The famous diamond Daraye-Noor (sea of light) of 182 carats in pink color.
The Kiani crown, belonged to Fath Ali shah and other Qajar kings, set with a 120 carat garnet.
The jeweled globe, made in 1869 by the order of Nasserdin-shah was made basically with 3656 grams of gold with 51366 precious stones mounted on it.
The peacock throne (in Persian named Tawouss, beloved of Fath Ali Shah) dating from the beginning of the 19th century.
Note the visiting hours are from 2:00 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. Open Saturday through Tuesday under strict control.