Category: history

A page of iranian history

A page of iranian History

Posted By : mehdi rafiei/ 594 0

1909, Iran, the first Middle Eastern country to have a constitution since 1906, finds itself in chaos.

On the one hand, the king, supported by the Russians and taking advantage of the support of the Cossack brigade, abdicates in favor of the crown prince, an act forced by the constitutionalists.

A page of iranian History

1909, Iran, the first Middle Eastern country to have a constitution since 1906, finds itself in chaos.

On the one hand, the king, supported by the Russians and taking advantage of the support of the Cossack brigade, abdicates in favor of the crown prince, an act forced by the constitutionalists.

On the other hand the Majles suffers from the lack of sovereignty and the budget necessary to carry out its reforms, ideological differences also disturb the good understanding between parliamentarians.

Taghizadeh, the leader of the Democratic Party, some of whose members have Russian citizenship, opposing the demands of clerics in the legislature, is convicted of “ideological corruption”. He is condemned to death and flees the country.

His opponent, Seyyed Behbahani, representative of the moderate party, is assassinated by a radical activist as he prepares to read Taghizade’s sentence in the Majles court.

One of the heroes of this revolution is a chief of the Bakhtiari tribe, Sardar Asaad, close to the British and having sided with the constitutionalists. He led his tribal army to the capital, and worked for its liberation. He was rewarded and honored by being appointed governor of Tehran.

A decision was finally taken by the government, until then inert, to try to improve the financial situation of the country: the recruitment of an American financial mission and Swedish officers to organize an armed force capable of counterbalancing the power of the country. Cossack brigade. The choice falls on politically neutral countries.

Morgan Shuster (1877-1960), an American, was appointed Treasurer General of Persia and arrived in May 1911 at the head of a delegation of five financial advisers. It will work to put an end to financial abuses, such as corruption, privileges and foreign interference. All the evils from which the very young democracy suffered, which failed to change mentalities and the balance of power despite this revolution, is what he lets us understand in his autobiography.

Shuster also highlights the cultural distance between American advisers convinced of the benefits of a modern and efficient administration, and the reality of a traditional society, very hierarchical, where the complex relations of allegiance and parenthood guaranteed to individuals what ‘no rational law could offer them.

Shuster’s main enemies were the Russian and British delegations. The Russians still strongly present in northern Iran and the British trying to weaken the skills of the treasurer general, with the aim of obtaining the government’s approval for a new loan of 1,250,000 pounds.
Faced with so much hostility and pressure from the Russian-British “alliance”, Shuster was prematurely dismissed.

The Russians commit a coup in Tabriz, and the hanging of certain constitutionalists causing declarations of solidarity in Europe in socialist circles.
They will also show extreme brutality in Mashad on March 30, 1912, bombarding Imam Reza’s shrine and machine-gunning the crowd to disperse it killing 500 people.
The European press, occupied by the Titanic wreck, will not talk about it.

The situation was less dire in the south, where the population resisted British occupation.
Six years after the first demonstrations, the constitutional revolution was sinking into chaos.

One of the reasons for the failure of the constitution was due to the religious movement which had refused to follow through on a democratic logic, bounded by the limits of traditional theological discourse.
The differences of opinion of the constitutionalists were also fatal.

Reformers should no longer rely on outside support. Foreign interference was increasingly visible and brutal. Notably that of the British, on whom the Iranian liberals had initially based the hope of support against absolutism. Henceforth, it was with Russian socialist ideas that they were going to be united …

History of Coffee in Iran

History of Coffee in Iran

Posted By : mehdi rafiei/ 571 0

The history of coffee in Iran dates back to the Safavid period of the 17th century, probably a tradition borrowed from the Ottomans.

History of Coffee in Iran

The history of coffee in Iran dates back to the Safavid period of the 17th century, probably a tradition borrowed from the Ottomans.
Drinking coffee seems to have been a popular habit among Iranians before tea plants were introduced and cultivated in Iran in the 19th century.
The cultivation of tea, especially in the northern regions of the country, has gradually led to the replacement of coffee. Perhaps the subtle, sweet taste of local production has won the favor of consumers over the bitterness of the expensive importation of coffee.
The old Kahveh-Khaneh, literally coffee houses, while keeping their name, now serve tea.

The traces of coffee are still to some extent preserved in some communities such as the Armenians. Likewise, certain customs continue to exist, such as offering coffee powder at funerals to share the feeling of bitterness felt during the loss of a loved one with the family of the deceased.

After the Islamic revolution, a long list of prohibitions imposed themselves on the menu of Iranian pleasures. Alcoholic beverages and narcotics such as opium are banned; coffee, although suspect in the eyes of fanatics, escapes them and is favored by it.
Iranians have always appreciated the taste of bitterness, to such an extent that in the popular language, opium, medicine for all ailments and sorrows was called “talkhi” literally bitterness, which explains the keen interest of former consumers. of opiates for coffee in Iran.

It was not until the end of the Iran-Iraq war for a relative opening of the market and the improvement of the country’s economy in order to allow Iranians to go further in the world of flavors and gustatory pleasures, once liberated. worries of war.

Coffee and its accessories find their place among imported luxury items and “Farang” souvenirs. Iranians attribute this term to everything that comes from the West in general, it is the Iranian version of the word France.
Drinking coffee is therefore timidly done in intellectual and artistic circles looking for an ally to face intellectual rather than physical fatigue, a subject of rivalry against its infused adversary, tea.

But this time, the coffee is no longer initiated in the old Kahveh-Khaneh where it was deposed a century before.
These coffee houses have given way to a novelty: the cofee-shop. A relaxed atmosphere with modern or muted decor, background music, this is where you have to pay relatively dearly for cups of this beverage, drunk by the finesse of candle light.

An ideal refuge for young singles, away from the suspicious eyes of the street to meet and discuss the thousand and one ways to drink coffee, or other things …

The reopening of Iran’s borders after the war to foreign travelers, their strong demand for coffee consumption could be a factor in the development of trade in this seed, especially in restaurants and hotels.

Gradually, players in the coffee industry are starting to learn about this product and following increasing public demand, start importing coffee beans from Brazil and other producing countries. Instead of importing the expensive European brands, local brands appear and the roasting machines are activated imitating the European model.

The Iranian palate has a preference for Robusta and Arabica flavors, and Italian espresso brands are very popular.

Filter coffee, say the third generation of coffee, is increasingly popular with those looking for more flavor and simpler preparation.

Various exhibitions are held every year in Iran, an opportunity to keep up to date with the latest trends and current events in the coffee industry.

Today, coffee has definitely found its place in the menu of pleasures as well as in the hearts of Iranians, so much so that its bitter taste has nothing to envy to the popularity of the sweetness of tea!

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Posted By : apexweb/ 0
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