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The cosmogonic myth of the Zoroastrians

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The material world as an entity composed of seven creations of the God Ahura Mazda, each under the protection of a “beneficent immortal” Amahraspands, a species of archangel.

🥚a stone sky designed like an eggshell surrounding the rest; then 💦water filling the bottom of the shell.

The cosmogonic myth of the Zoroastrians

The material world as an entity composed of seven creations of the God Ahura Mazda, each under the protection of a “beneficent immortal” Amahraspands, a species of archangel.
🥚a stone sky designed like an eggshell surrounding the rest; then water filling the bottom of the shell.
🌎the earth floating on primitive waters like a flat disc (the mountain anchoring the earth) in the center of the earth, a single plant, 🐂a unique bull and the first man “Gayomard”, immortal life protected by Ahura Mazda itself, well, fire, visible in the sun and other celestial bodies.
everything is going well until Ahreman, the evil Spirit then attacks the creations of hormezd …
The trading posts of the empires in antiquity

The trading posts of the empires in antiquity

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“The Babylonians, now Iraqis, bought pigments, iron, copper, tin and wine from Asia Minor, today’s Turkey.

They also bought alum from Egypt and Syria to color wool and make glass.

The trading posts of the empires in antiquity

“The Babylonians, now Iraqis, bought pigments, iron, copper, tin and wine from Asia Minor, today’s Turkey.
They also bought alum from Egypt and Syria to color wool and make glass.
“Egypt exported luxury goods, in gold, ivory and ebony.
📍Syria and Phenicia which corresponds to Lebanon, exported cedar wood and glass objects.
📍The Sogdians, now known as Uzbeques, and Bactria, part of present-day Afghanistan, traded in lapis lazuli, and Choresmia, located in northeastern Iran, sold turquoise.
Gold, ivory and aromatic oils came from India and olive oil, wine and ceramics from Greece.

A page of iranian history

A page of iranian History

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1909, Iran, the first Middle Eastern country to have a constitution since 1906, finds itself in chaos.

On the one hand, the king, supported by the Russians and taking advantage of the support of the Cossack brigade, abdicates in favor of the crown prince, an act forced by the constitutionalists.

A page of iranian History

1909, Iran, the first Middle Eastern country to have a constitution since 1906, finds itself in chaos.

On the one hand, the king, supported by the Russians and taking advantage of the support of the Cossack brigade, abdicates in favor of the crown prince, an act forced by the constitutionalists.

On the other hand the Majles suffers from the lack of sovereignty and the budget necessary to carry out its reforms, ideological differences also disturb the good understanding between parliamentarians.

Taghizadeh, the leader of the Democratic Party, some of whose members have Russian citizenship, opposing the demands of clerics in the legislature, is convicted of “ideological corruption”. He is condemned to death and flees the country.

His opponent, Seyyed Behbahani, representative of the moderate party, is assassinated by a radical activist as he prepares to read Taghizade’s sentence in the Majles court.

One of the heroes of this revolution is a chief of the Bakhtiari tribe, Sardar Asaad, close to the British and having sided with the constitutionalists. He led his tribal army to the capital, and worked for its liberation. He was rewarded and honored by being appointed governor of Tehran.

A decision was finally taken by the government, until then inert, to try to improve the financial situation of the country: the recruitment of an American financial mission and Swedish officers to organize an armed force capable of counterbalancing the power of the country. Cossack brigade. The choice falls on politically neutral countries.

Morgan Shuster (1877-1960), an American, was appointed Treasurer General of Persia and arrived in May 1911 at the head of a delegation of five financial advisers. It will work to put an end to financial abuses, such as corruption, privileges and foreign interference. All the evils from which the very young democracy suffered, which failed to change mentalities and the balance of power despite this revolution, is what he lets us understand in his autobiography.

Shuster also highlights the cultural distance between American advisers convinced of the benefits of a modern and efficient administration, and the reality of a traditional society, very hierarchical, where the complex relations of allegiance and parenthood guaranteed to individuals what ‘no rational law could offer them.

Shuster’s main enemies were the Russian and British delegations. The Russians still strongly present in northern Iran and the British trying to weaken the skills of the treasurer general, with the aim of obtaining the government’s approval for a new loan of 1,250,000 pounds.
Faced with so much hostility and pressure from the Russian-British “alliance”, Shuster was prematurely dismissed.

The Russians commit a coup in Tabriz, and the hanging of certain constitutionalists causing declarations of solidarity in Europe in socialist circles.
They will also show extreme brutality in Mashad on March 30, 1912, bombarding Imam Reza’s shrine and machine-gunning the crowd to disperse it killing 500 people.
The European press, occupied by the Titanic wreck, will not talk about it.

The situation was less dire in the south, where the population resisted British occupation.
Six years after the first demonstrations, the constitutional revolution was sinking into chaos.

One of the reasons for the failure of the constitution was due to the religious movement which had refused to follow through on a democratic logic, bounded by the limits of traditional theological discourse.
The differences of opinion of the constitutionalists were also fatal.

Reformers should no longer rely on outside support. Foreign interference was increasingly visible and brutal. Notably that of the British, on whom the Iranian liberals had initially based the hope of support against absolutism. Henceforth, it was with Russian socialist ideas that they were going to be united …

bazaar

Bazaar

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Stalls and shops lined up forming a spine, the economic center of cities in the Middle East. this has been called bazaar, since the dawn of time.

Bazaar

Stalls and shops lined up forming a spine, the economic center of cities in the Middle East. this has been called bazaar, since the dawn of time

A covered market, with a thousand and one entrances and alleys, airy and lighted. A setting that holds madrassas, caravanserais, schools and hammams. As it used to be a city inside a city.

A corridor where inhabitants meet, both merchants and customers.

A store, goods, there is as much food as diamonds.

Side by side, bakeries beside jewelry stores, each one to his own business,expertise and customers.

It wraps around the time and sets its course according to the currents and the surrounding environment..

The heirs are named after the parents, and the previous ones are remembered with nostalgia.

The bazaar has  thousands of  secrets and offers a chance to all beginners, with or without experience and money.

Don’t be surprised by the number of stalls, no competition problem, they all earn as the Omnipotent promises

History of Coffee in Iran

History of Coffee in Iran

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The history of coffee in Iran dates back to the Safavid period of the 17th century, probably a tradition borrowed from the Ottomans.

History of Coffee in Iran

The history of coffee in Iran dates back to the Safavid period of the 17th century, probably a tradition borrowed from the Ottomans.
Drinking coffee seems to have been a popular habit among Iranians before tea plants were introduced and cultivated in Iran in the 19th century.
The cultivation of tea, especially in the northern regions of the country, has gradually led to the replacement of coffee. Perhaps the subtle, sweet taste of local production has won the favor of consumers over the bitterness of the expensive importation of coffee.
The old Kahveh-Khaneh, literally coffee houses, while keeping their name, now serve tea.

The traces of coffee are still to some extent preserved in some communities such as the Armenians. Likewise, certain customs continue to exist, such as offering coffee powder at funerals to share the feeling of bitterness felt during the loss of a loved one with the family of the deceased.

After the Islamic revolution, a long list of prohibitions imposed themselves on the menu of Iranian pleasures. Alcoholic beverages and narcotics such as opium are banned; coffee, although suspect in the eyes of fanatics, escapes them and is favored by it.
Iranians have always appreciated the taste of bitterness, to such an extent that in the popular language, opium, medicine for all ailments and sorrows was called “talkhi” literally bitterness, which explains the keen interest of former consumers. of opiates for coffee in Iran.

It was not until the end of the Iran-Iraq war for a relative opening of the market and the improvement of the country’s economy in order to allow Iranians to go further in the world of flavors and gustatory pleasures, once liberated. worries of war.

Coffee and its accessories find their place among imported luxury items and “Farang” souvenirs. Iranians attribute this term to everything that comes from the West in general, it is the Iranian version of the word France.
Drinking coffee is therefore timidly done in intellectual and artistic circles looking for an ally to face intellectual rather than physical fatigue, a subject of rivalry against its infused adversary, tea.

But this time, the coffee is no longer initiated in the old Kahveh-Khaneh where it was deposed a century before.
These coffee houses have given way to a novelty: the cofee-shop. A relaxed atmosphere with modern or muted decor, background music, this is where you have to pay relatively dearly for cups of this beverage, drunk by the finesse of candle light.

An ideal refuge for young singles, away from the suspicious eyes of the street to meet and discuss the thousand and one ways to drink coffee, or other things …

The reopening of Iran’s borders after the war to foreign travelers, their strong demand for coffee consumption could be a factor in the development of trade in this seed, especially in restaurants and hotels.

Gradually, players in the coffee industry are starting to learn about this product and following increasing public demand, start importing coffee beans from Brazil and other producing countries. Instead of importing the expensive European brands, local brands appear and the roasting machines are activated imitating the European model.

The Iranian palate has a preference for Robusta and Arabica flavors, and Italian espresso brands are very popular.

Filter coffee, say the third generation of coffee, is increasingly popular with those looking for more flavor and simpler preparation.

Various exhibitions are held every year in Iran, an opportunity to keep up to date with the latest trends and current events in the coffee industry.

Today, coffee has definitely found its place in the menu of pleasures as well as in the hearts of Iranians, so much so that its bitter taste has nothing to envy to the popularity of the sweetness of tea!

the great iranian poet Saadi

the great iranian poet Saadi

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“The tumultuous torrent which descends from the mountains will be lost in the ravines, but the most modest drop of dew is sucked up by the sun which raises it up to the stars”.

the great iranian poet Saadi

“The tumultuous torrent which descends from the mountains will be lost in the ravines, but the most modest drop of dew is sucked up by the sun which raises it up to the stars”. Saadi fruit garden
Saadi, the great Persian poet born in 1210 in Shiraz, has been nicknamed the “Master of the Word”. He studied at the Al Nizamiya School in Baghdad, the most important science center in the Muslim world at the time, and then traveled to various regions, including the Levant and the Hejaz.
He then returned to his hometown of Shiraz and remained there for the rest of his life. His tomb is still visited today to pay homage to him.
Some scholars believe that Saadi is more influenced by religious teachings, especially Shafi’i and Ash’ari, two branches of Sunism, and that he would be fatalistic. This statement is debatable because not quite well founded.
Saadi had an undeniable influence on the Persian language, so there is a significant similarity between modern Persian and his literary writings. His works have long been taught in schools as a source of Persian language and literature, and many popular proverbs in the Persian language have their origin here.
He wrote in a simple manner and adopted a brief style which earned him great fame, even during his lifetime.
Their most famous works are Golestan, “The garden of roses” is their major work. This philosophical sum in verse and poetic prose, written in a style alternately naive, lyrical, tender and sometimes even humorous, initiates the reader to a finer perception of reality.
Behind the apparent sensuality of the form and beyond allegory, the deep nature, the “zat” of all being and all things, is revealed little by little, knowledge of which is the very essence of spiritual awakening. ., and Bustan “Le jardin des fruits”, Le Jardin des fruits is a collection of moral stories of great finesse, which also contains sentences and prayers. These short stories, often funny, for the most part have a moral or social dimension. They are all opportunities to learn to behave in problematic situations of life, and to emerge morally grown from its misadventures. The spiritual dimension of these stories can also take precedence over any other consideration, thus inviting meditation and recollection.
Golestan and Bustan are known as moral books whose influence extended beyond the borders of Persia: they also won over Western thinkers such as Voltaire and Goethe, among others.

Tazieh, a religious Theater

Tazieh, a religious Theater

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It is a kind of traditional Iranian religious theater, performed on the occasion of the martyrdom of Hossein, grandson of the prophet Mohamed in Karbala in 681 AD.

These performances are intended to commemorate and share the pain of the drama, and the oppressions inflicted by Yazid, the son of Muawyia on the family of the Prophet.

Tazieh, a religious Theater

It is a kind of traditional Iranian religious theater, performed on the occasion of the martyrdom of Hossein, grandson of the prophet Mohamed in Karbala in 681 AD.
These performances are intended to commemorate and share the pain of the drama, and the oppressions inflicted by Yazid, the son of Muawyia on the family of the Prophet.
This style of performance originated in the Qajar era, in the 19th century, and is literally based on a tradition collected orally.
Some peculiarities that we find in each performance of this living scene:

– The spectacle sometimes lasts a whole day from morning until sunset or until the assassination of Hossein.

– All dialogue recounts the strong moments to the rhythm of litanies to sadden and make the spectators cry. Long texts sung in poetry are recited according to manuscripts kept by the actors.

– Normally the role of women is played by men veiled in black.

– The Imam and his companions (the oppressed) are dressed in green and the yazidi (the oppressors) in red.

– At midday, during prayer there is an intermission, lunch is provided for all the spectators, an ex-voto from generous donors.

– A whole orchestra of percussions and flutes accompany the show.

– An extra cavalry in charge of mounting a horse accompanied by music, turns around the stage on command.

– The staging is done live in full view of the spectators, there is no backstage.

Arranged marriage in Iran

Arranged marriage in Iran

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Arranged marriage is a delicate question, often asked by travelers when visiting Iran, but a very cliché and often irrelevant topic for many Iranians.

Arranged marriages exist but represent only a small percentage of marriages in Iran.

Arranged marriage in Iran

Arranged marriage is a delicate question, often asked by travelers when visiting Iran, but a very cliché and often irrelevant topic for many Iranians.

Arranged marriages exist but represent only a small percentage of marriages in Iran.

 

Marriage is a kind of passage to adulthood and is essential if man want to position ourselves in society.
It is still a real institution.

But a problem arises thus: how do young people meet in Iran?
As co-education is prohibited at school from an early age, boys and girls evolve separately. There is therefore a glaring lack of contact.
The problems generated by this lack of diversity, this lack of knowledge of people of the opposite sex, cause a high number of divorces in Iranian society, one of the main challenges of which is the transition from a traditional society to a society modern.

Currently most marriages are based on personal choice.
Young people have the opportunity to meet and get to know each other in different forms: at the university which is a mixed space, through social networks which are widely used, through friends on the occasion of an outing or a party, in the street during a “dor-dor” where the boys flirt with the girls during a weekend drive.
Girls and boys, each in a different car, try their luck by driving around at night, to find a partner. The more luxurious the car, the higher the chances of success.
This causes heavy traffic at night on the main boulevards of the cities.
This “dor-dor” is one of the main hobbies of young people from the wealthy and middle classes, to get to know each other and start a relationship that could possibly lead to a marriage!
Window down, a phone number exchange at a red light, from the boys ‘car to the girls’ car parked next door, a nice smile from some and a flirtatious attitude from the others and off we go …

..a date at the cafe and an invitation to dinner, if the magic of love operates … if not, we do another round!

Pleasure of Iranians, traveler's nightmare

Pleasure of Iranians, traveler’s nightmare

Posted By : mehdi rafiei/ 532 0

Traditionally the Iranians eat on the floor,

by installing a tablecloth and putting the cutlery on the carpet, in the main room of the house.

Pleasure of Iranians, traveler’s nightmare

Traditionally the Iranians eat on the floor, by installing a tablecloth and putting the cutlery on the carpet, in the main room of the house.
Although the table has found its place in the daily comfort of Iranian homes, the pleasure of eating on the floor subsists and remains a beautiful tradition to be perpetuated.
The opening of many traditional restaurants in the old towns that offer this possibility is enjoying unprecedented success. The rooms of the old traditional residences are furnished, painted and often decorated with a mirror, transformed into private living rooms. It is an ideal choice for families and especially for honeymooners who seek more privacy, which allows women to be more comfortable enjoying their meals, by slightly removing their hijab.
These restaurants are very popular with travelers, curious to discover the art of living and the taste of local gastronomy through this traditional way of eating with family or in groups.
But once you ask them to take off their shoes and sit on the floor, that’s another story!

The alley of Ghahro-Ashti in Yazd

The alley of Ghahro-Ashti in Yazd

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The alley of “sulk and reconciliation”
In the old town of Yazd,

there are alleys so narrow that if two passers-by pass each other, they have to stand to the side so that they can pass without jostling each other.

The alley of Ghahro-Ashti in Yazd,

The alley of “sulk and reconciliation”
In the old town of Yazd, there are alleys so narrow that if two passers-by pass each other, they have to stand to the side so that they can pass without jostling each other.
If two people were shunned, their friends would intervene to reconcile them.
On the one hand, his friends take one towards the trap by coming back to the subject and interpolating it on the causes of conflict. Likewise (by the same trick) , just time to cross, one push towards each other to force them to kiss to end the quarrel (of course during the joint walk they try to calm them and justify the action of the other).
It’s not always that easy … the result was sometimes catastrophic, refusing and trying to walk away…