zoroastrian-avesta

Cultural ticket

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Social classes in Ancient Persia.

Persian society was modeled on a quadripartite scheme based on the Avesta, the sacred scriptures of the Zoroastrians.

Social classes in Ancient Persia.
Persian society was modeled on a quadripartite scheme based on the Avesta, the sacred scriptures of the Zoroastrians.
The categories were:  priests, warriors, farmers and artisans.
The first three were each under the protection of one of the Empire’s three great sacred fires.
Azar-Faranbagh for priests, Azar-Gushnasp for the King of Kings and warriors and Azar-barzin-Mihr for farmers.
Society in the Sassanid era was hierarchical. The word caste has been applied to designate its classes. Membership in a category was hereditary and the barriers to a higher level were, in principle, impenetrable.
📍Irandelle, the travel ticket

The cosmogonic myth of the Zoroastrians

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The material world as an entity composed of seven creations of the God Ahura Mazda, each under the protection of a “beneficent immortal” Amahraspands, a species of archangel.

🥚a stone sky designed like an eggshell surrounding the rest; then 💦water filling the bottom of the shell.

The material world as an entity composed of seven creations of the God Ahura Mazda, each under the protection of a “beneficent immortal” Amahraspands, a species of archangel.
🥚a stone sky designed like an eggshell surrounding the rest; then water filling the bottom of the shell.
🌎the earth floating on primitive waters like a flat disc (the mountain anchoring the earth) in the center of the earth, a single plant, 🐂a unique bull and the first man “Gayomard”, immortal life protected by Ahura Mazda itself, well, fire, visible in the sun and other celestial bodies.
everything is going well until Ahreman, the evil Spirit then attacks the creations of hormezd …

Babylon

The trading posts of the empires in antiquity

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“The Babylonians, now Iraqis, bought pigments, iron, copper, tin and wine from Asia Minor, today’s Turkey.

They also bought alum from Egypt and Syria to color wool and make glass.

“The Babylonians, now Iraqis, bought pigments, iron, copper, tin and wine from Asia Minor, today’s Turkey.
They also bought alum from Egypt and Syria to color wool and make glass.
“Egypt exported luxury goods, in gold, ivory and ebony.
📍Syria and Phenicia which corresponds to Lebanon, exported cedar wood and glass objects.
📍The Sogdians, now known as Uzbeques, and Bactria, part of present-day Afghanistan, traded in lapis lazuli, and Choresmia, located in northeastern Iran, sold turquoise.
Gold, ivory and aromatic oils came from India and olive oil, wine and ceramics from Greece.

bitcoin

Persia and Bitcoin

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The famous cryptocurrency is on the rise in Iran.

At a time when the giants of international finance are speaking out to warn of the risks and volatility of cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin is being validated as collateral in Iranian marriage contracts in place of bullion and cash.

The famous cryptocurrency is on the rise in Iran. At a time when the giants of international finance are speaking out to warn of the risks and volatility of cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin is being validated as collateral in Iranian marriage contracts in place of bullion and cash. This shows how well it is integrated into the country’s financial system.

According to Bitooda, a digital currency research firm, Iran is the third country in the world for Bitcoin mining, after China and America.
Nearly 2 million of this currency, the most famous currency used in the digital currency market, has been mined and deposited in Iranians’ “wallets”, virtual wallets.

Iran, one of the most economically sanctioned countries in the world, has seized the opportunity of cryptocurrencies to circumvent the economic blockade. And Iranian youth, hit hard by unemployment, have found a possible source of income and daily occupation.

Since 2014, Bitcoin has gradually entered unofficial transactions, a choice for thousands of families
Iranian women wanting to send money to their children living abroad, or it is used for some kind of business transaction.

Mining farms have sprung up in the country, illegally imported mining devices are installed in old factories and disused garages. A further consequence of the sanctions crippling the Iranian economy.
Industry, the flagship of the economy for a while, replaced by modern factories fed by the virtual.

It was in these most remote places, in apartment rooms, or under the banisters that the first Bitcoins were generated.
Since 2015 these “farms” have been expanding more and more to barter cheap electricity in exchange for an encrypted code ready to be cashed with a single swipe of a finger.

A whole new market has emerged, from traffickers of “mining devices” to electrical technicians, to cable vendors and appliance repairers. A parallel network, an underground economy, having started autonomously and wildly, escaping government control.

The old dream of the treasure hunter has just come true and the “mining devices” are running at full speed to exploit their devices and decrypt the maximum number of valid blocks and thus pocket the jackpot.

Deep in the Iranian soul lies an intuition for scenting out opportunities and getting rich or fattening one’s heritage. They were able to take advantage of the depths of the oil wells. The Iranian people easily engage in risky businesses, such as tightrope walkers. The Iranian economy suffers from permanent inflation since the revolution, derived from international economic sanctions, and speculation is a second job for almost all Iranians, an example is: the frenzy of pyramid systems of all kinds that have pulverized the savings of many families in the 2010s.

Bitcoin is well established and present in the lives of Iranians at the most contested moment in its history. They ride this wave while waiting to see better days …

Omar Khayyam

Omar Khayyam

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May 18 is the day of commemoration of the illustrious Hakim Omar Khayyam.

He was a philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet in the 11th century.

May 18 is the day of commemoration of the illustrious Hakim Omar Khayyam.

He was a philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet in the 11th century.

He is considered one of the greatest mathematicians of the Middle Ages. Omar Khayyam is notably the instigator of the solar calendar, still used in Iran.

But his fame is mainly due to the writing of his quatrains, Rubaiyat, often cited in the West for their skepticism. They would conceal, according to Idries Shah, “mystical pearls”, making Khayyam a Sufi. He is one of the most popular and widely read Persian poets around the world.
This large audience is due to a first translation of his works into English by Edward Fitzgerald, in 1859.

A page of history

A page of history

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1909, Iran, the first Middle Eastern country to have a constitution since 1906, finds itself in chaos.

On the one hand, the king, supported by the Russians and taking advantage of the support of the Cossack brigade, abdicates in favor of the crown prince, an act forced by the constitutionalists.

A page of history

1909, Iran, the first Middle Eastern country to have a constitution since 1906, finds itself in chaos.

On the one hand, the king, supported by the Russians and taking advantage of the support of the Cossack brigade, abdicates in favor of the crown prince, an act forced by the constitutionalists.

On the other hand the Majles suffers from the lack of sovereignty and the budget necessary to carry out its reforms, ideological differences also disturb the good understanding between parliamentarians.

Taghizadeh, the leader of the Democratic Party, some of whose members have Russian citizenship, opposing the demands of clerics in the legislature, is convicted of “ideological corruption”. He is condemned to death and flees the country.

His opponent, Seyyed Behbahani, representative of the moderate party, is assassinated by a radical activist as he prepares to read Taghizade’s sentence in the Majles court.

One of the heroes of this revolution is a chief of the Bakhtiari tribe, Sardar Asaad, close to the British and having sided with the constitutionalists. He led his tribal army to the capital, and worked for its liberation. He was rewarded and honored by being appointed governor of Tehran.

A decision was finally taken by the government, until then inert, to try to improve the financial situation of the country: the recruitment of an American financial mission and Swedish officers to organize an armed force capable of counterbalancing the power of the country. Cossack brigade. The choice falls on politically neutral countries.

Morgan Shuster (1877-1960), an American, was appointed Treasurer General of Persia and arrived in May 1911 at the head of a delegation of five financial advisers. It will work to put an end to financial abuses, such as corruption, privileges and foreign interference. All the evils from which the very young democracy suffered, which failed to change mentalities and the balance of power despite this revolution, is what he lets us understand in his autobiography.

Shuster also highlights the cultural distance between American advisers convinced of the benefits of a modern and efficient administration, and the reality of a traditional society, very hierarchical, where the complex relations of allegiance and parenthood guaranteed to individuals what ‘no rational law could offer them.

Shuster’s main enemies were the Russian and British delegations. The Russians still strongly present in northern Iran and the British trying to weaken the skills of the treasurer general, with the aim of obtaining the government’s approval for a new loan of 1,250,000 pounds.
Faced with so much hostility and pressure from the Russian-British “alliance”, Shuster was prematurely dismissed.

The Russians commit a coup in Tabriz, and the hanging of certain constitutionalists causing declarations of solidarity in Europe in socialist circles.
They will also show extreme brutality in Mashad on March 30, 1912, bombarding Imam Reza’s shrine and machine-gunning the crowd to disperse it killing 500 people.
The European press, occupied by the Titanic wreck, will not talk about it.

The situation was less dire in the south, where the population resisted British occupation.
Six years after the first demonstrations, the constitutional revolution was sinking into chaos.

One of the reasons for the failure of the constitution was due to the religious movement which had refused to follow through on a democratic logic, bounded by the limits of traditional theological discourse.
The differences of opinion of the constitutionalists were also fatal.

Reformers should no longer rely on outside support. Foreign interference was increasingly visible and brutal. Notably that of the British, on whom the Iranian liberals had initially based the hope of support against absolutism. Henceforth, it was with Russian socialist ideas that they were going to be united …

bazaar

Bazaar

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Stalls and shops lined up forming a spine, the economic center of cities in the Middle East. this has been called bazaar, since the dawn of time.

Stalls and shops lined up forming a spine, the economic center of cities in the Middle East. this has been called bazaar, since the dawn of time

A covered market, with a thousand and one entrances and alleys, airy and lighted. A setting that holds madrassas, caravanserais, schools and hammams. As it used to be a city inside a city.

A corridor where inhabitants meet, both merchants and customers.

A store, goods, there is as much food as diamonds.

Side by side, bakeries beside jewelry stores, each one to his own business,expertise and customers.

It wraps around the time and sets its course according to the currents and the surrounding environment..

The heirs are named after the parents, and the previous ones are remembered with nostalgia.

The bazaar has  thousands of  secrets and offers a chance to all beginners, with or without experience and money.

Don’t be surprised by the number of stalls, no competition problem, they all earn as the Omnipotent promises

coffee

Coffee in Iran

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The history of coffee in Iran dates back to the Safavid period of the 17th century, probably a tradition borrowed from the Ottomans.

The history of coffee in Iran dates back to the Safavid period of the 17th century, probably a tradition borrowed from the Ottomans.
Drinking coffee seems to have been a popular habit among Iranians before tea plants were introduced and cultivated in Iran in the 19th century.
The cultivation of tea, especially in the northern regions of the country, has gradually led to the replacement of coffee. Perhaps the subtle, sweet taste of local production has won the favor of consumers over the bitterness of the expensive importation of coffee.
The old Kahveh-Khaneh, literally coffee houses, while keeping their name, now serve tea.

The traces of coffee are still to some extent preserved in some communities such as the Armenians. Likewise, certain customs continue to exist, such as offering coffee powder at funerals to share the feeling of bitterness felt during the loss of a loved one with the family of the deceased.

After the Islamic revolution, a long list of prohibitions imposed themselves on the menu of Iranian pleasures. Alcoholic beverages and narcotics such as opium are banned; coffee, although suspect in the eyes of fanatics, escapes them and is favored by it.
Iranians have always appreciated the taste of bitterness, to such an extent that in the popular language, opium, medicine for all ailments and sorrows was called “talkhi” literally bitterness, which explains the keen interest of former consumers. of opiates for coffee in Iran.

It was not until the end of the Iran-Iraq war for a relative opening of the market and the improvement of the country’s economy in order to allow Iranians to go further in the world of flavors and gustatory pleasures, once liberated. worries of war.

Coffee and its accessories find their place among imported luxury items and “Farang” souvenirs. Iranians attribute this term to everything that comes from the West in general, it is the Iranian version of the word France.
Drinking coffee is therefore timidly done in intellectual and artistic circles looking for an ally to face intellectual rather than physical fatigue, a subject of rivalry against its infused adversary, tea.

But this time, the coffee is no longer initiated in the old Kahveh-Khaneh where it was deposed a century before.
These coffee houses have given way to a novelty: the cofee-shop. A relaxed atmosphere with modern or muted decor, background music, this is where you have to pay relatively dearly for cups of this beverage, drunk by the finesse of candle light.

An ideal refuge for young singles, away from the suspicious eyes of the street to meet and discuss the thousand and one ways to drink coffee, or other things …

The reopening of Iran’s borders after the war to foreign travelers, their strong demand for coffee consumption could be a factor in the development of trade in this seed, especially in restaurants and hotels.

Gradually, players in the coffee industry are starting to learn about this product and following increasing public demand, start importing coffee beans from Brazil and other producing countries. Instead of importing the expensive European brands, local brands appear and the roasting machines are activated imitating the European model.

The Iranian palate has a preference for Robusta and Arabica flavors, and Italian espresso brands are very popular.

Filter coffee, say the third generation of coffee, is increasingly popular with those looking for more flavor and simpler preparation.

Various exhibitions are held every year in Iran, an opportunity to keep up to date with the latest trends and current events in the coffee industry.

Today, coffee has definitely found its place in the menu of pleasures as well as in the hearts of Iranians, so much so that its bitter taste has nothing to envy to the popularity of the sweetness of tea!

saadi

Saadi

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“The tumultuous torrent which descends from the mountains will be lost in the ravines, but the most modest drop of dew is sucked up by the sun which raises it up to the stars”.

“The tumultuous torrent which descends from the mountains will be lost in the ravines, but the most modest drop of dew is sucked up by the sun which raises it up to the stars”. Saadi fruit garden
Saadi, the great Persian poet born in 1210 in Shiraz, has been nicknamed the “Master of the Word”. He studied at the Al Nizamiya School in Baghdad, the most important science center in the Muslim world at the time, and then traveled to various regions, including the Levant and the Hejaz.
He then returned to his hometown of Shiraz and remained there for the rest of his life. His tomb is still visited today to pay homage to him.
Some scholars believe that Saadi is more influenced by religious teachings, especially Shafi’i and Ash’ari, two branches of Sunism, and that he would be fatalistic. This statement is debatable because not quite well founded.
Saadi had an undeniable influence on the Persian language, so there is a significant similarity between modern Persian and his literary writings. His works have long been taught in schools as a source of Persian language and literature, and many popular proverbs in the Persian language have their origin here.
He wrote in a simple manner and adopted a brief style which earned him great fame, even during his lifetime.
Their most famous works are Golestan, “The garden of roses” is their major work. This philosophical sum in verse and poetic prose, written in a style alternately naive, lyrical, tender and sometimes even humorous, initiates the reader to a finer perception of reality.
Behind the apparent sensuality of the form and beyond allegory, the deep nature, the “zat” of all being and all things, is revealed little by little, knowledge of which is the very essence of spiritual awakening. ., and Bustan “Le jardin des fruits”, Le Jardin des fruits is a collection of moral stories of great finesse, which also contains sentences and prayers. These short stories, often funny, for the most part have a moral or social dimension. They are all opportunities to learn to behave in problematic situations of life, and to emerge morally grown from its misadventures. The spiritual dimension of these stories can also take precedence over any other consideration, thus inviting meditation and recollection.
Golestan and Bustan are known as moral books whose influence extended beyond the borders of Persia: they also won over Western thinkers such as Voltaire and Goethe, among others.

Tazieh

Tazieh

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It is a kind of traditional Iranian religious theater, performed on the occasion of the martyrdom of Hossein, grandson of the prophet Mohamed in Karbala in 681 AD.

These performances are intended to commemorate and share the pain of the drama, and the oppressions inflicted by Yazid, the son of Muawyia on the family of the Prophet.

It is a kind of traditional Iranian religious theater, performed on the occasion of the martyrdom of Hossein, grandson of the prophet Mohamed in Karbala in 681 AD.
These performances are intended to commemorate and share the pain of the drama, and the oppressions inflicted by Yazid, the son of Muawyia on the family of the Prophet.
This style of performance originated in the Qajar era, in the 19th century, and is literally based on a tradition collected orally.
Some peculiarities that we find in each performance of this living scene:

– The spectacle sometimes lasts a whole day from morning until sunset or until the assassination of Hossein.

– All dialogue recounts the strong moments to the rhythm of litanies to sadden and make the spectators cry. Long texts sung in poetry are recited according to manuscripts kept by the actors.

– Normally the role of women is played by men veiled in black.

– The Imam and his companions (the oppressed) are dressed in green and the yazidi (the oppressors) in red.

– At midday, during prayer there is an intermission, lunch is provided for all the spectators, an ex-voto from generous donors.

– A whole orchestra of percussions and flutes accompany the show.

– An extra cavalry in charge of mounting a horse accompanied by music, turns around the stage on command.

– The staging is done live in full view of the spectators, there is no backstage.